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Old 28th June 2006, 10:12 AM
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Default Logic & Fallacies

"Argumentum ad logicam
This is the "fallacy fallacy" of arguing that a proposition is false because it has been presented as the conclusion of a fallacious argument. Remember always that fallacious arguments can arrive at true conclusions.

"Take the fraction 16/64. Now, cancelling a six on top and a six on the bottom, we get that 16/64 = 1/4."

"Wait a second! You can't just cancel the six!"

"Oh, so you're telling us 16/64 is not equal to 1/4, are you?"

.....

"Cats are a form of animal based on carbon chemistry, dogs are a form of animal based on carbon chemistry, so aren't dogs a form of cat?"

http://www.infidels.org/library/mode...hew/logic.html

"The debate in Ireland appears especially baffling; he reports that the debate included concern that machines were against natural law. My conclusion after reading this was that perhaps the only way to avoid controversy about abusing nature and natural law is for us all to live like tribal aboriginal peoples.
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/091...44846?n=283155 "

Quote:
Several problems exist with this type of argument that makes it a fallacy. First of all the word "natural" is often a loaded term, usually unconsciously equated with normality, and its use in many cases is simply a form of bias. Second, "nature" and "natural" have vague definitions and thus the claim that something is natural may not be correct by every definition of the term natural; a good example would be the claim of all-natural foods, such as "all-natural" wheat, the claimed wheat though is usually a hybridised plant that has been breed by artificial selection. Lastly, the argument can quickly be invalidated by a counter argument that demonstrates something that is natural that has undesirable properties (for example aging, illness, and death are natural), or something that is unnatural that has desirable properties (for example many modern medicines are not found in nature, yet have saved countless lives).

Generic forms of an appeal to nature are:

"X is Y because it is natural." (Y being a desirable property)
"X is Z because it is unnatural." (Z being an undesirable property)
Or simply when a desirable or undesirable property is implied:

"X is natural."
"X is unnatural."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal_to_nature
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Old 29th June 2006, 08:38 AM
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Wink

Mmm, KV, do you understand any of this, yourself? Anyhow, I welcome your studying logical fallacies; had you done that earlier, your own debate contributions might have been better in the past.

Edited to add: You will find a rather comprehensive list of logical fallacies here: http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/s...arguments.html

Cheers, Hans
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Old 29th June 2006, 11:29 AM
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Quote:
genotype + environment + random-variation → phenotype
Mostly, current/modern environment and random variations can effect genotype---nature or the truth. But it does not mean it can be persitent because modern environment may neither be absolute nor final.
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Old 29th June 2006, 12:44 PM
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I see, you are just spouting random quotations, as usual.

Have fun.
Hans
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Old 29th June 2006, 01:46 PM
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Many natural truths can be made invalid or unclear due to social reasons as this one;

Quote:
Survival of the fittest" and morality
Many critics of evolution argue that "survival of the fittest" is a justification for violence and cruelty by premising human "rights" on the perceived quality of an individual by an arbitrary measure of "fitness". Evolution proponents often consider this to be an example of the naturalistic fallacy (or more specifically the is-ought problem), which states that prescriptive, moral statements cannot be derived from purely descriptive premises. On this view, while some have tried to use evolution as a justification for pseudoscientific ideas such as some forms of well known eugenics, these ideas are not actually supported by evolutionary theory
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survival_of_the_fittest
It does not mean it is not related to "natural selection", to competition for survival or to predominance.

Current Social practices and initiations may prefer "just survival", may these not by for " "Survival of the fittest" and for "natural selection".

But, still ultimate tendancy may be towards "nature" as Many current theories are based on nature/ancient's mentionings and other are in line eg; acid/base water balance for three aurveda and three homeopathic constitutions, personalized medicies, organic foods/medicines, resorts/home/holiday preferences in remote green areas, photorelaxaton, phototherapies etc.

Look at it, if it somewhat resembles astrological considerations of ascendant LONG BACK;

Quote:
Conclusions: Cold outdoor temperature at birth is associated with increased coronary heart disease, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and poor lung function. Further research is needed to determine whether this finding reflects events occurring late in the third trimester of intrauterine growth or early in the postnatal period.

http://heart.bmjjournals.com/cgi/con...tract/90/4/381

Results Birth rates of people who later kill themselves show disproportionate excess for April, May and June compared with the other months.
http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/188/5/416
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